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The vast and wild lands of South America are home to various cuisines that have been influenced by cuisines of many ethinicities over time. South American Cuisine refers to typical foods, beverages, and cooking styles mutual to many of the countries and cultures in Latin America. Latin America is a highly varied area of land that holds various cuisines that vary from nation to nation. Some items typical of South American cuisine include maize-based dishes such as tortillas, tamales, pupusas and various salsas and other condiments like guacamole, pico de gallo, mole, chimichurri, and pebre. These spices are usually what give the South American cuisines a distinctive flavor; yet, each country of Latin America tends to use a different spice and those that share spices tend to use them at different quantities. Thus, this leads for a variety across the land. Sofrito, a culinary term that originally referred to a specific combination of sauteed or braised aromatics, exists in South American cuisine. It refers to a sauce of tomatoes, roasted bell peppers, garlic, onions and herbs. South American beverages are just as distinct as their foods. Some of the beverages can even date back to the times of the Native Americans. Some popular beverages include mate, pisco, atole, horchata, aguas frescas, chicha, and cacao. Desserts in Latin America are generally very sweet in taste. They include dulce de leche, Teja, flan, alfajor, rice pudding, and tres leches cake. Information about Native American cuisine comes from a great diversity of sources. Modern day native peoples retain a rich body of old-fashioned foods, some of which, like frybread, have become iconic of present-day Native American social gatherings. Foods like cornbread are known to have been adopted into the cuisine of the United States from Native American groups. Archaeological techniques, particularly in the subdisciplines of zooarchaeology and paleoethnobotany, have allowed for the understanding of other culinary practices or preferred foods which did not survive into the written historic record. Africans brought and preserved many of their traditions and cooking techniques. They were often given less desired cuts of meat, including shoulder and intestines. Menudo was derived from the habit of the Spaniards of giving the slaves cows’‘ intestines. Slaves developed a way to clean the offal and season it to taste. Slaves in the southern United States also did the same thing to the pig’‘s intestines given to them. In South America, the scraps of food the landlords did not eat, and by mixing what they got they usually ended coming up with new plates that nowadays have been adopted into the cuisine of their respective nation which is the case with the Peruvian tacu-tacu. The Europeans brought their culinary traditions, but quickly modified several of the fruits and vegetables native to the Americas into their own cuisines. Europe itself had been influenced by other cultures, such as with the Moors in Spain, and thus their food was already a mix of their world. The European influence for South American cuisine mainly comes from Spain, Portugal, and Italy and to a lesser extent France, although some influences from cuisines as diverse as British, German and Eastern European are also evident in some countries’‘ cuisines. A wave of immigrants from Asia, such as China and Japan, also influenced the cuisine of Latin America. The Chinese brought with them their own spices and food-styles, something that the people of Latin America accepted into their tables. Not only that, but several Asian restaurants also adapted a whole lot of Latin American food-styles into their own. This case can clearly be seen in the Peruvian chifa. The richest products of South America come from the middle of the continent, the Amazonia. In countries like Peru there is a robust influence of the Inca and their cuisine. Potatoes are habitually grown as a result of this, and also plants such as quinoa. Lima itself was declared the Gastronomic Capital of the Americas. Costa Rica lies on the Pacific Ocean, which provides a large array of seafood. Many plains are also on this continent, which are rich for growing food in plenty. In the Patagonia south of Chile and Argentina, many people produce lamb and venison. King crab is typically caught at the southern end of the continent. Antarctic krill has been freshly discovered and is now considered a fine dish. Tuna and tropical fish are caught all around the continent, but Easter Island is where they are found in copiousness. Lobster is also caught in great numbers from the Juan Fernández Islands. Chilean cuisine stems from the mixture of traditional Spanish cuisine with ethnic ingredients. European immigrants brought with them numerous styles and customs in cooking and thus, heavily manipulated the cuisine of Chile, including Italian, German, and French influences as well as the English afternoon tea. These mixtures have created a unique fusion. Seafood is widely used and an array of produce which historically has grown throughout the region has been implemented into Chilean gastronomy. Many recipes are accompanied and enhanced by Chilean wine such as Curanto. The cuisine of Colombia comprises of a large diversity of dishes that take into account the difference in regional climates. For instance, in the city of Medellín the typical dish is the bandeja paisa. It includes beans, rice, fried egg, ground meat or carne asada, chicharrón, chorizo, and arepa. It is usually accompanied by avocado, tomato and sauces. Inland, the plates look like the mix of cultures, inherited mainly from Amerindian and European cuisine, and the produce of the land mainly agriculture, cattle, river fishing and other animals’‘ raising. Such is the case of the sancocho soup in Valledupar, the arepas which is a corn based bread like patty. Local species of animals like the guaratinaja, part of the wayuu Amerindian culture. The food in Ecuador is varied, varying with altitude and associated agricultural conditions. Pork, chicken, beef, and cuy are popular in the mountain regions and are served with a variety of grains, especially rice and corn or potatoes. A popular street food in mountain regions is hornado which consists of potatoes served with roasted pig. Fanesca, a fish soup including several types of bean, is frequently eaten during Lent and Easter. During the week before the commemoration of the deceased or día de los muertos, the fruit beverage Colada Morada is typical, accompanied by Guaguas de Pan, which is stuffed bread shaped like children. Most regions in Ecuador follow the traditional three course meal of sopa or soup and Segundo or second dish which includes rice and a protein such as meat, poultry, pig or fish. Then desert and a coffee are normal. Dinner is typically lighter and sometimes just coffee or agua de remedio or herbal tea with bread. Some of the typical dishes in the coastal region are: ceviche, guatita, pan de almidón, encebollado corviche, empanadas and, papas con quero; in the mountain area: humitas, hornado, fritada, lomo saltado, tamales, churrasco, and llapingachos.