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The Portuguese cuisineconsists of a smorgasbord of various rich, filling and full-flavored dishes.The cuisine is closely related to Mediterranean cuisine. The influence of Portugal’‘s prior colonial belongings is also prominent, particularly in the wide variety of spices used. These spices include piripiriwhich are small, fiery chilli peppers; black pepper;also included are cinnamon, vanilla and saffron. Olive oil is one of the foundations of Portuguese cuisine, and the oil is used both for cooking and flavouring meals. Garlic is extensively used, as are herbs like coriander and parsley. Breakfast in the cuisine is customarily just coffee or milk and a bread roll with butter, jam, cheese or ham. Lunch, often lasting over an hour, is served between noon and 2 o’‘clock or between 1 and 3 o’‘clock, and dinner is mostly served late, around or after 8 o’‘clock. There are three main courses in the cuisine, and lunch and dinner typically include soup. A common soup in the Portuguese cuisine is caldoverdewhich is made with potato, shredded kale, and chunks of chouriço sausage. Among fish recipes in the cuisine, bacalhau dishes are prevalent. The most archetypal desserts of the cuisine are rice pudding which is decorated with cinnamon and caramel custard.But the desserts of the cuisine also often comprise a selection of cheeses. The most prevalentkinds are made from sheep or goat’‘s milk, and include the queijo da serra from the region of Serra da Estrela. A popular pastry of the cuisine is the pastel de nata which is a small custard tart sprinkled with cinnamon.Portuguese breakfasts often entail fresh bread, with butter, ham, cheese or fruit jams, supplemented with simple milk, coffee with milk, tea or hot chocolate. Sweet pastries are also very widespread in the cuisine, as well as breakfast cereal which is eaten cold and mixed with milk or yogurt and fruit. Portugal is a maritime nation with a finely honed fishing industry.This is echoed in the amount of fish and seafood consumed in the cuisine. The country has Europe’‘s uppermost fish consumption per capita and is among the top four in the world for this indicator. Fish is served grilled, boiled, poached and simmered, fried or deep-fried, stewed or even roasted. Principalamong these is bacalhauor cod which is the most eaten type of fish in Portugal. Cod is in most cases always used dried and salted. This is because the Portuguese fishing customs in the North Atlantic advanced before the development of refrigeration.Therefore the cuisine adopted other means of preservation. The fish needs to be saturated in water or occasionally in milk before cooking. The modest fish dishes are often flavored with virgin olive oil and white wine vinegar. Portugal has been fishing and trading cod since the 15th century and this cod trade accounts for its ubiquity in the cuisine. Some other popular seafood in the cuisine are crabs, fresh sardines, squid, cuttlefish, octopus, spiny lobster, shrimp and prawns, lobster, and many other crustaceans such as barnacles and goose barnacles, lamprey, hake, horse mackerel, sea bass, scabbard and a pronounceddiversity of other fish and shellfish. The molluscs consumed in the cuisine includeoysters, periwinkles, clams, mussels, and scallops. Caldeirada is a stew containing anassortment of fish and shellfish with potatoes, tomato and onion. Sardines used to be conserved in brine for sale in rustic areas. In later times, sardine canneries were established all along the Portuguese coast. Ray fish is dried in the sun in Northern Portugal. Canned tuna is easilyobtainable in Continental Portugal. Tuna used to be plentiful in the waters of the Algarve. They are trapped in fixed nets when they crossed the Portuguese southern coast to spawn in the Mediterranean, and again when they returned to the Atlantic. Fresh tuna, on the other hand, is usually eaten in Madeira and the Algarve, where tuna steaks are an essential item in local cuisine. Canned sardines or tuna, served with boiled potatoes or black-eyed beans and boiled eggs, constitute a fitting meal when there is no time available to make anything more ostentatious.Vegetables that are prevalent in Portuguese cookery include tomatoes, cabbage, and onions. There are many starchy dishes, such as feijoada, a rich bean stew, and açorda, a thick bread-based casserole which iscommonly flavored with garlic and coriander or seafood. Many dishes are served with salad typically made of tomato, lettuce, and onion flavored with olive oil and vinegar. Potatoes and rice are also very common in Portuguese cuisine. Soups made from a selection of vegetables are ordinarily available, one of the most popular being caldoverde, made from potato purée, thinly chopped kale and slices of chouriço.Eating meat and poultry on a daily basis was a privilege of the upper classes in the olden days. Meat was a primary component at a nobleman’‘s table during the middle Ages. A common Portuguese dish, largely eaten in winter, is cozido à portuguesa, which to some extent parallels the French pot au feu, the Spanish cocido, the New England boiled dinner or the Costa Rican casado. Its arrangement depends on the cook’‘s imagination and budget. A really lavish cozido may take beef, pork, salt pork, several sorts of enchidos, pig’‘s feet, cured ham, potatoes, carrots, turnips, chickpeas, cabbage and rice. This would formerly have been a preferred food of the prosperous farmer.It later reached the tables of the urban bourgeoisie and typical restaurants.There is a widespreaddiversity of Portuguese cheeses, expressly those made from goat’‘s or sheep’‘s milk, or both together. Frequently these are very strongly flavored and fragrant. In the Azores, there is a sort of cheese made with cow’‘s milk with a peppery taste. Traditional Portuguese cuisine does not comprise cheese in its recipes, so it is habitually eaten on its own before or after the main dishes. Other renowned cheeses such as Queijo de Azeitão, Queijo de CasteloBranco and Queijo da Serra da Estrela which is very strong in flavour, can be eaten soft or more matured. Serra da Estrela is handmade from fresh sheep milk and thistle-derived rennet. The Portuguese cuisine involveswine which has three variations. The wines in the cuisine are red, white and green. The traditional Portuguese drink Rosé isprevalent in non-Portuguese markets. But it is not particularly common in Portugal itself. The term green wine does not denote the colour of the drink, but to the fact that this wine has to be drunk young. A green wine should be consumed as a new wine. On the other hand, a maduro wine ordinarily can be consumed after a period of ageing. Green wines are only manufactured in the north of Portugal and are typicallysomewhat sparkling. Port wine is a fortified wine of distinctive flavour produced in Douro. It isroutinely served with desserts. Vinho da Madeira is a regional wine produced in Madeira and isanalogous to sherry. From the distillation of grape wastes from the wine production a variety of strong tasting brandies are made. Characteristic liqueurs such as LicorBeirão and Ginjinha are very widespread alcoholic drinks in Portugal.